Cervical cancer staging as the basis of treatment planning

Cervical cancer is the most widespread malignant neoplasm among women of the reproductive age. Signs of the disease are perfectly visible for a doctor during the gynecological examination. Thus, regular check-ups with Pap test will reveal the problem at the earliest stage. Cervical cancer staging is primarily important for the correct treatment and rehabilitation planning.

Cervical cancer is the most widespread malignant neoplasm among women of the reproductive age. Signs of the disease are perfectly visible for a doctor during the gynecological examination. Thus, regular check-ups with Pap test will reveal the problem at the earliest stage. Cervical cancer staging is primarily important for the correct treatment and rehabilitation planning.

Cervical cancer stage 0

At stage 0 there are no symptoms or clinical manifestations. This is cancer “in situ” that can be revealed only during the preventive colposcopy. The process is non invasive – malignant cells are located only on the surface of cervix, not invading deeper tissues. Without proper therapy, it will evolve into the invasive carcinoma in 10-15 years.

Stage 0 cancer is limited by the uterine mucosa and does not have any metastases. Thus, it may be removed completely with the help of minimally traumatic procedures:

  • Laser surgery
  • Cryosurgery
  • Electrosurgical procedure

Superficial atypical cells are evaporated or frozen, while healthy tissues remain undamaged. The prognosis is favorable – 5-year survival rate exceeds 93%.

Cervical cancer stage 1

At stage 1 malignant neoplasm is limited by the cervix boundaries and does not reach corpus of the uterus. Depending on the invasion depth and size of the neoplasm, stage 1 is divided into few sub-stages:

  1. Sub-stage 1A includes invisible for the naked eye tumors; diagnostic includes obligatory microscopic examination
  2. Sub-stage 1B includes macroscopically visible neoplasms or formations that grow over 5 mm in depth and have size over 5-7 mm

Treating process depends on the sub-stage and may include:

  • Conization of the cervix (if a woman wants to preserve fertility)
  • Simple hysterectomy or simultaneous removing of the pelvic lymph nodes

Cervical cancer stage 2

At stage 2 a tumor spreads beyond the cervix borders but does not affect the pelvic wall or distal third of the vagina. Depending on the parametrium involvement, stage 2 is also divided into few sub-stages:

  1. Sub-stage 2A is diagnosed in absence of atypical cells in the parametrium
  2. Sub-stage 2B is diagnosed in the parametrium affection

If the tumor is over 4 cm in size, organ-preserving surgical resection is not performed. This is connected with high risk of the disease recurrence. Treatment schemes include:

  • Radical hysterectomy
  • Remote irradiation, brachytherapy
  • Chemotherapy

Estimated at stage 2A, the 5-year survival rate reaches 63%, while at stage 2B it is under 58%.

Cervical cancer stage 3

At stage 3 cervical cancer spreads to the lower third of the vagina, perimetrium or causes hydronephrosis with kidney dysfunction. Sub-stages are determined as follows:

  1. Sub-stage 3A is diagnosed when the process spreads to perimetrium but does not affect the pelvic wall
  2. Sub-stage 3B is diagnosed when there are atypical cells in the pelvic wall or cancer-related kidney dysfunction is diagnosed

Surgical resection is typically inefficient in such patients, so doctors choose from:

  • Radiation therapy
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy
  • Biological therapy

Cervical cancer stage 4

At stage 4 cancer spreads beyond the pelvis borders, into the bladder or rectum. For the further treatment schedule elaboration, few sub-stages are also determined:

  1. Sub-stage 4A includes tumor invasion in the nearby organs
  2. Sub-stage 4B includes distant metastases presence

In this case the list of possible interventions consists of:

  • Remote irradiation
  • Brachytherapy (at stage 4A)
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

Therapy is mainly aimed at slowing down the tumor progression and managing cancer symptoms. Curative treatment for the fourth stage of cervical cancer is to be discovered yet.

Planning diagnostics and treatment abroad with Booking Health

Hospitals that offer therapy at all cervical cancer stages need to be specialized both in gynecology and oncology. What is more, they need to have:

  • Equipment for laser surgery, cryosurgery, robot-assisted interventions and other modern techniques
  • Equipment for different irradiation modes, e.g. brachytherapy
  • Access to the novel medications, like newer chemotherapy drugs, immunotherapy, targeted therapy
  • High success rates in diagnostic and treatment along with low risks of complications
  • Qualified healthcare professionals with wide clinical practice

Specialized German hospitals meet all the strictest requirements of oncological certification. If you are not a German citizen and have little international experience, you still can receive service of the world’s leading clinic with the help of Booking Health.

Booking Health is the medical tourism provider that simplifies all aspects of undergoing therapy abroad for people from 75 countries. The company takes care about proper hospital selection, making an urgent appointment, issuing visa and trip organization, booking accommodation and transfer, providing fair treatment cost due to excluding additional fees for foreigners, oral and written translation, etc.

 

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